Carbon dating using exponential growth

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These events – triggered by asteroid impacts, massive volcanic activity, eruption of methane, ocean anoxia and extreme rates of glaciation (see Figures 1 and 2) – have direct implications for the effects of the current rise of CO2.

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( —It's has been know that massive increases in emission of CO2 from volcanoes, associated with the opening of the Atlantic Ocean in the end-Triassic Period, set off a shift in state of the climate which caused global mass extinction of species, eliminating about 34% of genera.

The extinction created ecological niches which allowed the rise of dinosaurs during the Triassic, about 250-200 million years ago.

Other notable manifestations of Silurian rock include the rolling hills of eastern Iowa and central and southern Indiana, as well as similar rounded hills, called klintar, that dot the island landscape of Gotland, Swed., where Silurian mound reefs reach the surface.

These ancient reef deposits have been eroded into remarkable shapes where they surface near the modern seacoast.

In Ontario the Niagara Escarpment fringes the eastern and northern sides of Lake Huron, and it is recognized by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) as a biosphere reserve.

A continuous footpath follows the Niagara Escarpment for 800 km (about 500 miles) from Queenston Heights, Ont., in the Niagara Falls area to the tip of the Bruce Peninsula at Tobermory, Ont.

Figure 4 – The Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) represented by sediments in the Southern Ocean, central Pacific and South Atlantic oceans.

The data indicate a) deposition of an organic matter-rich layer consequent on extinction of marine organisms; b) lowering of δ18O values representing an increase in temperature and c) a sharp decline in carbonate contents of sediments representing a decrease in p H and increase in acidity.

As our anthropogenic global emissions of CO2 are rising, at a rate for which no precedence is known from the geological record with the exception of asteroid impacts, another wave of extinctions is unfolding.

Mass extinctions of species in the history of Earth include: Figure 2 – Relations between CO2 rise rates and mean global temperature rise rates during warming periods, including the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum, early Oligocene, mid-Miocene, late Pliocene, Eemian (glacial termination), Dansgaard-Oeschger cycles, Medieval Warming Period, 1750-20-2012 periods.


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