Surface exposure dating with cosmogenic nuclides

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This chronology of an outlet of the Patagonian Ice Cap is comparable to many records in the Northern Hemisphere despite a maximum in local summer insolation during this period.By the time the cosmic ray cascade reaches the surface of Earth it is primarily composed of neutrons. Geology35 6: Because there are two radionuclides decaying, the ratio of concentrations of these two nuclides can be used without any other knowledge to determine an age at which the sample was buried past the production depth typically 2—10 meters.Solifluction is common in periglacial environments, and can result in rolling, burial and movement of boulders on slopes.Cosmogenic nuclide dating is effective over short to long timescales 1, yearsdepending on which isotope you are dating.Rock samples may be collected with a hammer and chisel or with a rock saw.Super high energy particles—mostly protons— are produced by our Sun, supernovae, and probably other extraterrestrial sources.These particles continuously enter the Earth system at incredible rates and are often, but misleadingly, called cosmic rays.In situ cosmogenic nuclides have become a powerful means to determine surface exposure ages of boulders on moraines and other landforms that are important to paleoclimate reconstructions.Potentially the largest and least quantifiable source of uncertainty of these surface exposure ages is the variable exposure histories of individual boulders.We use the mean square of weighted deviates (MSWD) statistic and cumulative frequency plots to identify groups of boulders that have statistically similar ages based on the number of analyses and their uncertainties.These samples most likely represent the true age of the moraine.

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